館長序-張譽騰

    歷史上許多古文明皆有印章文化,運用方寸之物代表個人,達到締結契約、確認身分等作用,是人類歷史發展到高度文明的一大重要象徵。從兩河流域的滾筒印章、古印度的鈕扣印章、古埃及與中國的多樣式印章,雖然發展風格迥異,然皆有其豐富的文化歷程。中國的印章文化淵遠流傳,歷數千年而未止,至今仍被視為代表個人且具法律效力的標誌之一,且發展成為具有極高度藝術價值的文物。從印材、篆文、刻製等,均讓印章在自然材質與人文藝術上表現出融合之美。
 
    歷代常用的印材,有陶、貴金屬、玉、石、骨等,而在眾多的材料之中,印石因多樣的質地且蘊含天地文意,最令歷代文人所重視及喜愛。其中,又以福建壽山村的壽山石、浙江臨安昌化鎮的雞血石、江浙青田縣的青田石以及內蒙古的巴林石,最受文人推崇,有中國四大印石之稱。
 
    此次印石展覽,展出了許多壽山石的作品。四石之一的壽山石,迄今發現有田黃、芙蓉、善伯、荔枝……等 150 餘品種,其質地溫潤而細膩,晶瑩剔透,色彩斑斕而豔麗,渾然天成。在唐宋之間,專以壽山石雕刻的技藝逐漸成形,自明中葉後,漸受重視。至清代,壽山石中的田黃倍受皇帝喜愛,因其色彩透黃為君王之色、石材溫潤視為有德,更被譽為「石帝」;另外,芙蓉石恬淡清雅,清新脫俗,被譽為「石后」;荔枝石潔淨輕盈,則被譽為「石妃」,為壽山石中最受喜愛的三個石種,亦衍生許多傳世之作。更因石材形狀各異,除印璽外,亦可作為石雕之用,用於觀賞、把玩、餽贈、或為珍藏,也因而
將印石的用途加深積廣。
 
    由於印石多為文人收藏把玩之用,故其中雕刻常暗藏典故,以表達祈福、祝賀、明志等寓意。除印石質美之外,雕刻家的技藝更替印章文化增添許多獨特的藝術風味。印石雕刻大致可分為圓雕、透雕及浮雕,印章上的印鈕便常運用圓雕,可供立體的觀賞,也因此更需要雕刻家對作品各面向精確把握。而透雕又稱為鏤空雕,於把玩件中最為常見。不同於圓雕,浮雕則是須附著於物體上的雕刻方式,在西方常用於花瓶、鏡框等裝飾性的雕刻。以刀法深淺又可分為數種類型,其中以中華文化獨有的「薄意」雕刻為入刀最淺、意象最高的技法。若將雕有薄意的印石拓於紙,即顯現出一幅水墨畫,是為兼容雕刻及繪畫的獨特技法,極具文化藝術價值。此次展品中,有 40 多件此技法之作品,且一併展出其拓片,讓觀眾一覽石、刻、畫之美。
 
    國立歷史博物館創建於民國 44 年(西元 1955 年)12 月,自首批館藏入館至今,60 餘年來藏品已近 6 萬件,樣貌多元、古今兼備。長年來,積極舉辦各類型國際性展覽,以期達到雅俗共賞、老少咸宜的目的,兼之以弘揚歷史文化之教育性功能。適逢開館超越一甲子,本館很榮幸地舉辦由易玖愚先生私人珍藏之「石韻揭諦─印石巧雕展」,向民眾介紹各類印石,並宣揚印石文化與其工藝之美。



                                                                                                                                                                                                        
國立歷史博物館館長 謹識

    Many ancient civilizations have incorporated the use of “name seals” into their cultural history. Objects of varying shapes were utilized to represent a person for purposes of entering into agreements, confirming one’s identity, and other uses. This custom of using an object to symbolize one’s identity is a milestone in the historical development of ancient civilizations. Each civilization created distinct forms of name seals. The Mesopotamians utilized a roller-shaped object, early Indians developed a button-shaped seal, and ancient Egyptians used multiple-shaped name seals. Each civilization created its own rich cultural history and development around the use of name seals. 
 
    The Chinese name seal, or “chop,” has a history thousands of years old and still counting. Even in current  times, the chop is still in use as a legal form of identification in China. For the Chinese, the chop has evolved and transformed into a valued cultural artifact with great artistic significance. The chop seamlessly combines many elements such as the material selected, the carvings, the scripts and verses, and the subject matter; together they all convey an integrated beauty by merging natural texture with Chinese art and culture.
 
    The materials used in making chops have evolved with each ancient dynasty. Porcelain, precious metals, jade, stone and bone were all used; however, the chops made of stone, believed to symbolize heaven and earth were the most highly praised in each dynasty. Tianhuang stones from the Shoushan Village in Fujian province, Chicken-Blood stones from Changhua town, Lin'an City in Zhejiang province, Qingtian stones from Qingtian County in Zhejiang Province, and the Balin Stone from Inner Mongolia, collectively known as “The Four Stones in China,” were the most collected and favored by the Chinese literati. 
 
    In this Stone Seal Exhibition, many pieces made of Shoushan stones are on display. To date, more than 150 types of Shoushan stone have been discovered, including Tianhuang stones, Furong stones, Shanbo stones, Lichi (Lychee) stones, and so on. Their texture is gentle and exquisite allowing for translucent carvings. Their bright-colored exterior is striking with vivid colors. The craftsmanship in Shoushan stone carvings evolved into an original art form during the Tang and the Song Dynasties, and it began to receive public attention in the late Mid-Ming Dynasty (around 1582). The Qing emperors especially preferred the great variety of Tianhuang stones. Tianhuang’s regal yellow hue perfectly represented the Qing emperors’ royal color. The stone’s gentle appearance became associated with good moral character, so Tianhuang was referred to as “The King of Stones.” On the other hand, Furong stones, described as charming and elegant, fresh and delightful were known as “The Queen of Stones.” The light and clean Lichi (Lychee) stones were called “The Concubine of Stones.” These three stones were the most favored by the public and collectors alike. Numerous other famous art collections were also created from these stones. In addition to the royal chop, these stones can be made into stone carvings for people to enjoy and to play with, or they can also serve as fashionable gifts or displayed in private collections, therefore expanding the possible uses of these stones.

    Since the literati mostly collected the stones as an amusement, the carvings often depict many allusions; they may reveal prayers for blessings, congratulations, self-declarations, or other tales. Besides the use of fine-quality stones, the sculptor’s craftsmanship and skill can add unique styles and artistic significance to the chop culture. The stone carvings can be classified as freestanding sculptures, relief sculptures, and translucent sculptures. Most of the time, the knob of a seal is made of freestanding sculpture to enable it to be observed from all angles; hence, the sculptor is required to take great care with all sides and perspectives for a piece of work. Translucent sculptures are also referred to as openwork sculptures. Unlike freestanding sculptures in the West, the Chinese translucent sculptures were made by attaching the carved stones to objects such as vases, or eyeglass frames. The translucent sculptures can be divided into various types depending on the depth of the carvings. “Surface carving” is a technique utilizing a light cut that reveals the most intricate imagery. Ink and press the surface carved stone on a piece of paper, and the result will be a Chinese ink wash painting. It is a special process that combines carving and painting revered for its great cultural and artistic value. There are more than 40 pieces of work on display representing this unique surface art technique. The stone rubbings are on display as well, allowing visitors to admire the beauty of the stone chops, the carvings, and the paintings.
 
    The National Museum of History was founded in the 44th Year of the R.O.C. (1955). The museum’s collection has now grown to over 50,000 pieces within the past 60 years. The collection is extensive tracing from modern times far into ancient times. Since its inception the museum has actively held several international exhibitions with the goal of bringing high culture and art into popular culture. We hope the exhibits inspire both the young and old to come discover and wonder at the history and culture within these walls. For the museum’s 60th Anniversary, we are very proud to host the “Experience the Stone Arts—Shoushan Stone Carving Exhibition” showcasing the private collection of Mr. Yi Jiu-Yu to introduce the variety of seal stones to the public. Hopefully, the public will enjoy this rare opportunity to observe the beauty of the stone chop, learn more of its origins, and experience the various aesthetics of the stone chop culture and craftsmanship.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Director, National Museum of History
 

时间

2017-10-18 17:00


栏目


作者

張譽騰


分享