張序-張克晉

    璽印之初,以取信實徵為要,或以銅鑄,或以鏨金,可穿繫以為攜行。後因廣用,間或以木製,鮮用石刻。
 
    今人多言壽山石者,據考於南宋之時,已有於福建採之。用於印材者,多於明代中期以後,然亦不為大量開採,石類較少,只取之易奏刀刻字而已。福建壽山系列石材,至清代以降,始大為興盛。
 
    所謂壽山石系,實為福州市北四十餘公里處,近連江與羅源二縣,有三嶺山系,即壽山、九峰與芙蓉三主峰鼎峙期間。山麓緩平之處,村舍雜掩期間,寺宇田園交映,景色優美。其間盡出美石,膩潤細滑,色澤美麗,變化多端,為石雕之上材。
 
    有清以降,篆刻治印,已成獨立藝術類門,文人及書畫界求石者眾,此地諸山各脈,採石已成專業,於石材之需求,趨於益發講究,至清中晚期,由雕刻及篆刻者之經驗及喜好,已將此地石材細分,類別極夥,至今其總目可分「田坑」、「水坑」、「山坑」三大類。田坑所指為壽山村周邊溪畔田底所藏之零散不成脈之獨石;水坑即為壽山村南之坑頭石脈,此中有結晶質瑩潤通靈者,人稱「水凍」或「凍石」;山坑則泛指除此之周圍臘石礦脈,以壽山 、月洋二礦區為範圍。
 
    田坑石為壽山系列石材中,最為珍貴,於此長僅數里之壽山溪兩旁水田底之古沙層中,無規則散落埋藏著大小不一之獨石,名為「田石」。其產區有異,有上坂、中坂、下坂及碓下坂之分。其中以中坂田石質最佳,色濃而質嫩,為諸石之極。田坑品種之命名,以其色澤區分品種,輔以石質、產地,而有田黃石、白田石、紅田石及黑田石四種。另有質次之硬田、擱溜田、溪管田等田坑石。
 
    田坑石多具「蘿蔔絲紋」,其疏密不一、或隱或現,而「田黃凍」者,幾無內紋,色濃質嫩,瑩潤剔透,極其罕得,最為珍貴!田黃或裹以黑皮,是為鴉皮田,或外黃內白,給名金包銀。

    芙蓉山所產石,為獨立一支石種,色澤極多樣,品類精粗皆具,其質佳色美者,最為藏石、雕刻、篆刻者所鍾愛,其質細潤易奏刀,色勻淨而高雅,富尊貴之氣,為近百年以來,最為保藏之印石。
 
    於我國境內,除福建壽山石系列外,浙江之昌化、青田,江西,內蒙之巴林,亦產石材極佳之美石,皆石質軟膩,色澤瑰麗,於我國石雕藝術及篆刻用印上,提供多樣選擇,形成中國石雕藝術及文化項目之璀璨成果,使之名篆刻家、名工藝美術家輩出。收藏、喜好壽山等系列美石者極多,書畫家用印而講究此美石者亦夥,欣賞此美石之質地,玩賞其雕工之精雅,使用時之心怡,寶藏之宜值,同好以美石之朋聚,皆為人生之樂事、雅事!易斌凱先生十數二十年來,親赴壽山,選石、切鑿,並請著名美術工藝師奏刀雕刻,寶而藏之,藏之石種掘性通靈,極其豐富,各色田石,尤為識者稱道;芙蓉、荔枝、善伯、坑頭、高山、旗降……,及昌化雞血石、青田石,巴林石,所藏質美工精,量多而件件皆可寶之。此次以「石韻揭諦」之名,於臺北國立歷史博物館展出極難得之田坑石及百餘方精工巧雕、石材膩美之名石,信可一美文士之視界、藏家之寶觀及賞雕刻工藝之極致,眾皆有以待之。





 
                                                                   中華文物學會理事&復旦大學講座教授
 


    Initially, the primary purpose of making imperial seals was to establish credibility for imperial edicts. These seals were mainly made of cast bronze or engraved gold, and they were carried around as seal pendants. As seals became a common accessory outside the imperial court and the imperial palace, the material used to make it gradually shifted to mostly wood and sometimes stone in order to reduce the cost of it.
 
    Historical records of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) suggest that most of the excavation of Shoushan stones took place in Fujian Province. During the mid-Ming Dynasty, Shoushan stones, although used as the material to make seals, were still rare in types; therefore, the size of its excavation and the supply of it remained low. Due to the scarce supply of stones, artists selected only the portions that were mostly suited for carving. It was not until the Qing Dynasty that Shoushan stones began to gain its popularity.
 
    The excavation site of Shoushan stones, in fact, took place in a suburban area approximately 40 kilometers north of Fuzhou City. It was located at the intersection of the three mountains—Mount Shoushan, Mount Jiufeng, and Mount Furong—that range across Lienchiang County and Luoyuan County. At the bottom of the mountain, cottages and temples are scattered in the fields, creating a blissful landscape. The serene land nurtured fine stones, which are rich in colors, smooth in texture, and divergent in patterns. These characteristics make Shoushan stones the most ideal choice for sculptors.
 
    During the Qing Dynasty, seal carving had become an independent study of art. A large number of scholars, painters, and calligraphers adored and praised the art of seal stone. The excavation of stones had significantly and professionally improved in the mountain areas in order to satisfy the growing demands by seal artists and craftsmen. Based on the experiences and preferences of the sculptors and seal makers, the stone materials were divided into three categories of various types by the Mid-Qing Dynasty. The three main categories, basically named after the excavation sites, included Tiankeng (fields), Shueikeng (puddles), and Shankeng (mountains). Tiankeng is where to find the independent stones scattered by the riverbank and hidden in the underground around the Shoushan Village. Shueikeng is referred to as the veinstones from the southern pithead in the Shoushan Village; the ones in their crystalized state were also called Shueidong (stones excavated from puddles and having a jelly-like texture) or Dongshi (jelly-like stones) as people believed that they “have spiritual attributes.” Shankeng is the general term for Ceraphite found in the two excavation sites—Shoushan and Yueyang.
 
    Amongst the various types of Shoushan stones, Tiankeng stones are considered as the most valuable. In the ancient sand layer at the bottom of the paddy fields alongside of the Shoushan creek, which is only a few miles long, an assortment of irregularly scattered and isolated stones known as Tianshi (stones excavated from fields) can be found. Depending on where the excavation took place, Tianshi can be further classified as upper-hill ( 上 坂 ), middle-hill( 中 坂 ), lower-hill( 下 坂 ), and downstream-hill( 碓 下 坂 ). Middle￾hill Tianshi is the finest in quality and texture, and it is known to be the best stones among all stones. The different types of Tiankeng stones are named using their colors, quality, and their places of origin. There are four types of stones—Tianhuang (yellow stones excavated from fields), Baitian (white-ish stones excavated from fields), Hongtian (orange-reddish stones excavated from fields), and Heitian (blackish stones excavated from fields). On the other hand, Tiankeng stones that are lower in quality include Yingtian (stones excavated from fields and are rough and hard in texture), Geliutian (stones that emerged from underground due to plowing or landslides), and Xiguantian (stones excavated from the bottom of rivers).
 
    Most Tiankeng stones exhibit a pattern resembling shredded radish. The density of such pattern may be loose or packed, and embedded or revealed. Tianhuang is the most precious and the rarest stones among all; it is rich in color with a translucent and lustrous texture. If the Tianhuang is covered with black skin, it is called Wuyapi-Tianhuang ( 烏鴉皮田黃 , Tianghuang covered in a blackish layer like the feather of a crow); if it has a yellow outer layer and a white inner part, it is known as “Silver Wrapped in Gold.”The stones excavated from Mount Furong are a standalone type of stones that is well-known for its variety of colors and textures. Fancied by stone collectors, sculptors, and seal artists for its elegance and graciousness, these stones are ideal for carving, for they have incomparable qualities and various colors. These stones are the most collectable seal stones ever discovered since the past century.
 
    Besides Fujian Province, Changhua and Qingtian in Zhejiang Province as well as Jiangxi and Balin in Inner Mongolia are also places known for nurturing beautiful stones with fine qualities. The uniqueness in their colors and textures has offered a great selection for seal stone carving and has established the foundation and development of seal art, giving rise not only to the contemporary seal stone masters and artists but also the glamourous cultural pieces they created.
 
    More people have discovered their love for collecting Shoushan stone artworks, including calligraphers and painters who pay scrupulous details to the beauty of seal stones. Not only do they admire the fine quality of these lovely stones, they also appreciate the exquisite details and intricate carvings demonstrated in the artworks. People form lasting friendships as they gather to share in the joy of appreciating the elegance and gracefulness of these stones. Mr. Yi has spent nearly three decades visiting Mount Shoushan to personally select the best stones with the finest qualities and with the spiritual attributes. He commissioned several famous artists to make the stones into wonderful artworks that he has preciously kept in his own gallery for years. His collection features a variety of Tianshi in diverse colors, such as Furong stones, Lichi (Lychee) stones, Shanbo stones, Kengtou stones, Gaoshan stones, Qijiang stones, Changhua ChickenBlood stones, Qingtian stones, and Balin stones. These stones are all of the finest quality and carved with extremely exquisite skills by the best sculptors. Now, this collection of extraordinary Tiankeng stones will be displayed at the National Museum of History in Taipei during the exhibition of “Experience the Stone Arts.” It is our hope that everyone will seize this great opportunity and take a closer glimpse at the finest stone artworks.



                                                                                         

                                                                                                                at the Taipei Little Mountain
                                                                                                                                Resort on a mid-autumn day in Year of the Monkey

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2017-10-18 18:13


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張克晉


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